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Objective: Subfertility, erectile dysfunction, recurrent abortions, and other health problems are associated with smoking, which is a rapidly expanding global epidemic. Furthermore, the impact on the male endocrine system, particularly testosterone levels, is an ongoing topic of debate due to the contradictory findings that have been recorded. Using a non-smoking control group (n=50) and a group of male smokers (n=90), the researchers examined the effects of smoking on serum free testosterone (T) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). In regards to serum free testosterone (T), which was 15% higher in smoker cases (p < 0.01), and on carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and the P values is < 0.001 and less than 0.001, respectively, our study found a positive and statistically significant difference between the smoker and non-smoker groups. Furthermore, a negative link between smoking duration and semen parameters was shown to be statistically significant (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Further evidence that smoking has beneficial effects on blood testosterone and CEA concentrations was added to the current investigation.


Testosterone hormones CEA semen subfertility smoking

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