Main Article Content

Abstract

The current investigation was aimed to study some important biomarkers in patients with chronic kidney disease. Between June and October of 2023, 80 patients were recorded for CKD cases at Al-Jumhuri Hospital and Azadi Teaching Hospital. In Kirkuk, Iraq, at private laboratories, experimental work was conducted. The present study's participants had been divided up as follows: 40 healthy volunteers as control group. 80 patients with CKD as a second group. The results showed that creatinine level in patients (6.37±1.56 mg/dl) was indicated a substantial (P≤0.05) rise when compared to the normal individuals (0.95±0.17 mg/dl). Urea level in patients (154.02±25.84 mg/dl) indicated a substantial (P≤0.05) rise when compared to the normal individuals (29.17±5.32 mg/dl). The Copeptin level in patients (6.13±0.49 pmol/L) was indicated a substantial (P≤0.05) rise when compared to the normal individuals (3.04±0.58 pmol/L). B2MG level in patients (3.47±0.35 ng/ml) was indicated a substantial (P≤0.05) rise when compared to the normal individuals (2.28±0.21 ng/ml). The MDA level in patients (3.94±0.31 nmol/ml) was indicated a substantial (P≤0.05) rise when compared to the normal individuals (1.47±0.7 nmol/ml). GSH level in patients (0.2573±0.052 nmol/ml) was indicated a substantial (P≤0.05) reduce when compared to the normal individuals (0.4831±0.052 nmol/ml). Based on the current results, Copeptin, B2MG, Malondialdehyde and glutathione, in addition to urea and creatine, can be considered important criteria for diagnosing chronic renal failure.

Keywords

CKD Copeptin B2MG Malondialdehyde glutathione

Article Details

How to Cite
Jalank Hameed Mahmoud. (2024). STUDY SOME IMPORTANT BIOMARKERS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE. Central Asian Journal of Medical and Natural Science, 5(1), 289-295. https://doi.org/10.17605/cajmns.v5i1.2318

References

  1. 1. Polenakovic MH, Dohcev S, Rambabova-Bushljetik I, et al. The Importance of the World Kidney Day World Kidney Day - 11 March 2021 - Living Well with Kidney Disease. Pril (Makedon Akad Nauk Umet Odd Med Nauki)2021; 42:19–40.
  2. 2. Hill NR, Fatoba ST, Oke JL, Hirst JA, O’Callaghan CA, Lasserson DS, Hobbs FD. Global prevalence of chronic kidney disease—a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(7): e0158765.
  3. 3. Shabaka A, Cases-Corona C, Fernandez-Juarez G. Therapeutic insights in chronic kidney disease progression. Front Med (Lausanne). 2021;8: 645187.
  4. 4. Cao Q, Chen XM, Huang C, Pollock CA. MicroRNA as novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets in diabetic kidney disease: an update. FASEB Bioadv. 2019;1(6):375–88.
  5. 5. Hallan S.I., Ritz E., Lydersen S. Combining GFR and albuminuria to classify CKD improves prediction of ESRD. J Am Soc Nephrol, 20 (2009), pp. 1069-1077.
  6. 6. Hemmelgarn B.R., Zhang J., Manns B.J. Nephrology visits and health care resource use before and after reporting estimated glomerular filtration rate JAMA, 303 (2010), pp. 1151-1158.
  7. 7. Levey A.S., Cattran D., Friedman A. Proteinuria as a surrogate outcome in CKD: report of a scientific workshop sponsored by the National Kidney Foundation and the US Food and Drug Administration Am J Kidney Dis, 54 (2009), pp. 205-226.
  8. 8. Ben Ameur R., Molina L., Bolvin C. Proteomic approaches for discovering biomarkers of diabetic nephropathy Nephrol Dial Transplant, 25 (2010), pp. 2866-2875.
  9. 9. Knepper M.A. Common sense approaches to urinary biomarker study design J Am Soc Nephrol, 20 (2009), pp. 1175-1178.
  10. 10. Zhang WR, Parikh CR. Biomarkers of acute and chronic kidney disease. Annu Rev Physiol. 2019;81:309–33.
  11. 11. Bidin MZ, Shah AM, Stanslas J, Seong CLT. Blood and urine biomarkers in chronic kidney disease: an update. Clin Chim Acta. 2019;495:239–50.
  12. 12. Taherkhani A, Farrokhi Yekta R, Mohseni M, Saidijam M, Arefi Oskouie A. Chronic kidney disease: a review of proteomic and metabolomic approaches to membranous glomerulonephritis, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and IgA nephropathy biomarkers. Proteome Sci. 2019;17:7.
  13. 13. Yamamoto A, Morioki H, Nakae T, Miyake Y, Harada T, Noda S, Mitsuoka S, Matsumoto K, Tomimatsu M, Kanemoto S, et al. Transcription factor old astrocyte specifically induced substance is a novel regulator of kidney fibrosis. FASEB J. 2021;35(2): e21158.
  14. 14. Dounousi E., Papavasiliou E., Makedou A. Oxidative stress is progressively enhanced with advancing stages of CKD Am J Kidney Dis, 48 (2006), pp. 752-760
  15. 15. Calabrese V., Mancuso C., Sapienza M. Oxidative stress and cellular stress response in diabetic nephropathy Cell Stress Chaperones, 12 (2007), pp. 299-306.
  16. 16. Mahmood, N. A. (2010). Glutathion-S- transferase Enzyme and Malondialdehyde (MDA) in Colorectal Cancer and in Healthy Control. J. Can. Med. Gen. 3(1): 21-26.
  17. 17. Tain YL, Luh H, Lin CY, et al. Incidence and risks of congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract in newborns: A population-based case-control study in Taiwan. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(5): e2659.
  18. 18. Katsoufis CP, DeFreitas MJ, Infante JC, et al. Risk Assessment of severe congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT): A birth cohort. Front Pediatr. 2019; 7: 182.
  19. 19. Bulum B, Ozçakar ZB, Ustüner E, et al. High frequency of kidney and urinary tract anomalies in asymptomatic first-degree relatives of patients with CAKUT. Pediatr Nephrol. 2013; 28(11): 2143-7.
  20. 20. Reddy G. C., Ramakrishna D., Pragna R. (2013). iron indices in patients with functional anemia in chronic kidney disease. The Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine .vol.24, no.3-4
  21. 21. Elisabeth Ejerblad, C. Michael Fored, Per Lindblad, Jon Fryzek, Paul W. Dickman, Carl-Gustaf Elinder, Joseph K. Mclaughlin, and Olof Nyre´N. (2004). association between smoking and chronic renal failure in a nationwide populationbased case-control study. J Am Soc Nephrol 15: 2178–2185
  22. 22. Rule AD, Amer H, Cornell LD et al.( 2010). The association between age and nephrosclerosis on renal biopsy among healthy adults. Ann Intern Med; 152: 561– 567.
  23. 23. Epstein M.(1996). Aging and the Kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol;7:1106-1122.
  24. 24. Aljumaili, Wissam Sabhan Khalaf, "Partial purification of the hormone of the two copeptics and its relationship with some biochemical variables in patients with chronic renal failure in Kirkuk." Ph.D. Thesis, College of Education for Pure Sciences, Tikrit University. 2019.
  25. 25. Jumaa,I. A. (2013). Study of Some Biochemical Parameters in Blood Serum of Patients with Chronic Renal Failure. Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences); 39: 4.
  26. 26. Bamanikar SA, Bamanikar AA, Arora A, Study of Serum urea and Creatinine in Diabetic and nondiabetic patients in in a tertiary teaching hospital . The Journal of Medical Research 2016; 2(1): 12-15.
  27. 27. Noor, U.A.; Raja, T.M.; Javaid, M.A.; Mudassar, Z. and Asad, M.R. (2014). Evaluating Urea and Creatinine Levels in Chronic Renal Failure Pre and Post Dialysis: A Prospective Study. Journal of cardiovascular disease, 2(2)
  28. 28. Moses, O. and Johnkennedy, N. (2013). The Alteration of Serum Glucose Urea and Creatinine Level of Malaria Patients in Obowo Local Government Area of Imo State Nigeria. International Journal of Advanced Medicine, (1): 1-6
  29. 29. Velho G, et al. Plasma copeptin, kidney outcomes, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in people with long-standing type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2016;39(12):2288–2295.
  30. 30. Corradi V, et al. Copeptin levels and kidney function in ADPKD: case-control study. Clin Nephrol. 2016;86(9):147–153.
  31. 31. Ettema EM, et al. The effect of renal function and hemodialysis treatment on plasma vasopressin and copeptin levels. Kidney Int Rep. 2017;2(3):410–419.
  32. 32. Okuno S, Ishimura E, Kohno K, Fujino-Katoh Y, Maeno Y, Yamakawa T, et al. Serum beta2-microglobulin level is a significant predictor of mortality in maintenance haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009;24(2):571–7.
  33. 33. Liabeuf S, Lenglet A, Desjardins L, Neirynck N, Glorieux G, Lemke HD, et al. Plasma beta-2 microglobulin is associated with cardiovascular disease in uremic patients. Kidney Int. 2012;82(12):1297–303.
  34. 34. Amighi J, Hoke M, Mlekusch W, Schlager O, Exner M, Haumer M, et al. Beta 2 microglobulin and the risk for cardiovascular events in patients with asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis. Stroke. 2011;42(7):1826–33.
  35. 35. Shinkai S, Chaves PH, Fujiwara Y, Watanabe S, Shibata H, Yoshida H, et al. Beta2-microglobulin for risk stratification of total mortality in the elderly population: comparison with cystatin C and C-reactive protein. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168(2):200–6.
  36. 36. Vecchi AFD, Bamonti F, Novembrino C, Ippolito S, Guerra L, et al. Free and total plasma malondialdehyde in chronic renal insufficiency and in dialysis patients. Nephrol Dialysis Transplant. 2009;24(8):2524–2529.
  37. 37. Rusu CC, Racasan S. Malondialdehyde can predict survival in hemodialysis patients. Med Pharm Rep. 2016;89(2):250–256.
  38. 38. Sridhar SN, Rao PVS, Sivakumar V. Study of oxidant and antioxidant status in patients with chronic kidney disease. J Clin Sci Res. 2018;7(3):124–154.
  39. 39. Suresh DR, Silvia CRWD, Agarwal R. Biochemical Markers of Oxidative Stress in Predialytic Chronic Renal Failure Patients. Hong Kong J Nephrol. 2008;10(2):69–73
  40. 40. Satyanarayana U, Chakrapani U. Biochemistry. In: Free radicals and antioxidants ;. p. 629–634
  41. 41. Duni A., Liakopoulos V., Roumeliotis S., Peschos D., Dounousi E. Oxidative Stress in the Pathogenesis and Evolution of Chronic Kidney Disease: Untangling Ariadne’s Thread. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019;20:3711.
  42. 42. Podkowinska A., Formanowicz D. Chronic Kidney Disease as Oxidative Stress- and Inflammatory-Mediated Cardiovascular Disease. Antioxidants. 2020;9:752.