Main Article Content


Aphthus fever or Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and serious viral disease of animals. It affects animals with cloven-hoofed including cattle, buffalo, camels, sheep, goats, deer and pigs. Africa, the Middles East, Asia and South America were between the countries whom report the disease. High losses of milk and meat production could be occurred due the infection and, affect the trade in livestock and livestock products.

Twenty unvaccinated dairy cows with foot and mouth vaccine and their newborn calves were included in this study to investigate about the effects of their infection with foot and mouth disease virus. The results were revealed high severity clinical signs as weakness, loss of milk production, mastitis with appearance of blisters on teats, lameness, cough, rough coat and sings of panting. Also the study was investigates about the fate of their newborn calves which were mostly dead from the infection through vertical transmission of the virus with lactated milk or owners.

In recommendation, in order to maintain the flock from FMDV, annual vaccination with FMD vaccine contain endemic strains A, O and Asia (Shamir).


FMDV dairy cattle diseases Diyala province

Article Details

How to Cite
Nasser, A. T., Abdulameer, S. J., Jalil, W. I., & Humadi, A. A. (2024). MICROBIAL AND VIRULENT VIEW TO CAUSATIVE AGENT OF FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE IN UNVACCINATED DAIRY COWS IN DIYALA GOVERNORATE, IRAQ. Central Asian Journal of Medical and Natural Science, 5(1), 8-11.


  1. 1. Arzt, J.; Pacheco, J. M. and Rodriguez, L. L. (2010). "The early pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle after aerosol inoculation. Identification of the nasopharynx as the primary site of infection" (PDF). Veterinary Pathology. 47 (6): 1048–63.
  2. 2. Arzt, J.; Juleff, N.; Zhang, Z. and Rodriguez, L. L. (2011). "The Pathogenesis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease I: Viral Pathways in Cattle". Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. 58 (4): 291–304.
  3. 3. Arzt, Jonathan; Branan, Matthew A.; Delgado, Amy H.; Yadav, Shankar; Moreno-Torres, Karla I.; Tildesley, Michael J.; Stenfeldt, Carolina (December 2019). "Quantitative impacts of incubation phase transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus". Scientific Reports. 9(1): 2707.
  4. 4. Arzt, Jonathan. (2020). "The Carrier Conundrum; A Review of Recent Advances and Persistent Gaps Regarding the Carrier State of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus". Pathogens. 9 (3): 167.
  5. 5. Coetzer J.A.W. and Tustin R.C. Eds. (2004). Infectious Diseases of Livestock, 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press.
  6. 6. Donaldson AI and Alexandersen S. (2002). Predicting the spread of foot and mouth disease by airborne virus. Rev Sci Tech. 21(3):569-75.
  7. 7. Fayna, Diaz-San Segundo , Gisselle N Medina , Carolina Stenfeldt , Jonathan Arzt and Teresa de Los Santos .(2016). Foot-and-mouth disease vaccines.
  8. 8. Jackson, A.L. O'Neill H. and Maree F., et al.( (2007). "Mosaic structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus genomes." Journal of General Virology. 88: 487-92.
  9. 9. Knight-Jones, T. J.; Rushton, J (2013). "The economic impacts of foot and mouth disease – What are they, how big are they and where do they occur?". Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 112 (3–4): 161–73.
  10. 10. Martinez-Salas E, Saiz M, and Sobrino F. (2008). "Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus". Animal Viruses: Molecular Biology. Caister Academic Press. pp. 1–38.
  11. 11. Radostitis O.M, C.C Gay, D.C. Blood and K.W. Hinehcliff. (2000). A Text book of the Disease of cattle, sheep, pigs ,goats and horses .(9th)ed. ,press. Harcourt publisher Ltd. pp:1059-66.
  12. 12. Yadav, Shankar; Stenfeldt, Carolina; Branan, Matthew A.; Moreno-Torres, Karla I.; Holmstrom, Lindsey K.; Delgado, Amy H.; Arzt, Jonathan (2019). "Parameterization of the Durations of Phases of Foot-And-Mouth Disease in Cattle". Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 6: 263.