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The purpose of this project is to build a ChatBot that utilises NLP (Natural Language Processing) and assists customers. A ChatBot is an automated conversation system that replies to users' queries by analysing them using NLP and assists them in every way it can. In this project, we are trying to implement a customer service chatbot that tries to converse and assist the user in some simple scenarios. This chat bot can take simple user queries as input, process them, classify them into one of the existing tags, and respond to them with an appropriate response. If the user's queries are too complex for the bot, it will re-direct the conversation to an actual person. The ChatBot is going to be based on a machine learning model that is built using PyTorch (Python Deep Learning library) and NLTK (Natural Language Tool Kit). The model used here is a feed-forward neural network. There are 3 layers in this neural network, i.e., the input layer, the hidden layer, and the output layer. The number of nodes in the input and hidden layers depends on the total number of distinct words present in the data set. whereas the output contains the same number of nodes as the number of distinct tags the data set is divided into. This kind of neural network is perfect for building simple chatbots as it does not require high computational power either for training or for deploying. The chatbot we built is for a coffee shop, and it performs actions like ordering coffee, telling a joke, suggesting a drink, etc. Although this chatbot is relatively simple, it is highly customizable, thus making it easy to implement it in any scenario.One of the main features of this ChatBot is that the dataset it is trained on is easy to customise and we can add new tags easily, but the neural network need not be altered in most cases, making this a very reliable model. Many chatbots similar to this are being used in fields like medicine, government agencies, automated food ordering systems, etc. This feature also makes training and testing the chatbot very easy to customize.


Automated Conversation System Natural Language Processing (NLP) Chatbot Python

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Regin, D. R., Rajest, D. S. S., T, S., G, J. A. C., & R, S. (2022). An Automated Conversation System Using Natural Language Processing (NLP) Chatbot in Python. Central Asian Journal of Medical and Natural Science, 3(4), 314-336. Retrieved from


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  115. 115. S Silvia Priscila, M Hemalatha, “ Heart Disease Prediction Using Integer-Coded Genetic Algorithm (ICGA) Based Particle Clonal Neural Network (ICGA-PCNN)”, Bonfring International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management Science 8 (2), 15-19, 2018.
  116. 116. Sadiq, S., Umer, M., Ullah, S., Mirjalili, S., Rupapara, V., & NAPPI, M. (2021). Discrepancy detection between actual user reviews and numeric ratings of Google App store using deep learning. Expert Systems with Applications, 115111.
  117. 117. SS Priscila, M Hemalatha, “Improving the performance of entropy ensembles of neural networks (EENNS) on classification of heart disease prediction”, Int J Pure Appl Math 117 (7), 371-386, 2017.
  118. 118. U. Zulfiqar, S. Mohy-Ul-Din, A. Abu-Rumman, A. E. M. Al-Shraah, And I. Ahmed, “Insurance-Growth Nexus: Aggregation and Disaggregation,” The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 665–675, Dec. 2020.
  119. 119. Yousaf, A., Umer, M., Sadiq, S., Ullah, S., Mirjalili, S., Rupapara, V., & Nappi, M. (2021b). Emotion Recognition by Textual Tweets Classification Using Voting Classifier (LR-SGD). IEEE Access, 9, 6286–6295.
  120. 120. Zafar, S.Z., Zhilin, Q., Malik, H., Abu-Rumman, A., Al Shraah, A., Al-Madi, F. and Alfalah, T.F. (2021), "Spatial spillover effects of technological innovation on total factor energy efficiency: taking government environment regulations into account for three continents", Business Process Management Journal, Vol. 27 No. 6, pp. 1874-1891.
  121. 121. Zhou, N. R., Liang, X. R., Zhou, Z. H., & Farouk, A. (2016). Relay selection scheme for amplify‐and‐forward cooperative communication system with artificial noise. Security and Communication Networks, 9(11), 1398-1404.
  122. 122. Zhu, F., Zhang, C., Zheng, Z., & Farouk, A. (2021). Practical Network Coding Technologies and Softwarization in Wireless Networks. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 8(7), 5211-5218.
  123. 123. D.S. Hooda, Keerti Upadhyay and D.K. Sharma, “A Generalized Measure of ‘Useful R-norm Information”, International Journal of Engineering Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Vol 3(5), pp.1-11, 2014.
  124. 124. D.S. Hooda, Keerti Upadhyay and D.K. Sharma, “Bounds on Cost Measures in terms of ‘Useful’ R-norm Information Measures” Direct Research Journal of Engineering and Information Technology, Vol.2 (2), pp.11-17, 2014.
  125. 125. D.S. Hooda and D.K. Sharma, “Lower and Upper Bounds Inequality of a Generalized ‘Useful’ Mean Code Length” GAMS Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Biosciences, Vol. 4(1), pp.62-69, 2013.
  126. 126. D.S. Hooda, Keerti Upadhyay and D.K. Sharma, ‘Useful’ R-Norm Information Measure and its Properties” IOSR Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Vol. 8, pp. 52-57, 2013.
  127. 127. D.S. Hooda, Sonali Saxena and D.K. Sharma, “A Generalized R-Norm Entropy and Coding Theorem” International Journal of Mathematical Sciences and Engineering Applications, Vol.5(2), pp.385-393, 2011.
  128. 128. D.S. Hooda and D.K. Sharma, “Bounds on Two Generalized Cost Measures” Journal of Combinatorics, Information & System Sciences, Vol. 35(3-4), pp. 513-530, 2010.
  129. 129. D.K. Sharma and D.S. Hooda, “Generalized Measures of ‘Useful’ Relative Information and Inequalities” Journal of Engineering, Management & Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol.1(1), pp.15-21, 2010.
  130. 130. D.S. Hooda and D.K. Sharma (2010) “Exponential Survival Entropies and Their Properties” Advances in Mathematical Sciences and Applications, Vol. 20, pp. 265-279, 2010.
  131. 131. D.S. Hooda and D.K. Sharma, “Generalized ‘Useful’ Information Generating Functions” Journal of Appl. Math. and Informatics, Vol. 27( 3-4), pp. 591-601, 2009.
  132. 132. D.S. Hooda and D.K. Sharma, “Non-additive Generalized Measures of ‘Useful’ Inaccuracy” Journal of Rajasthan Academy of Physical Sciences, Vol. 7(3), pp.359-368, 2008.
  133. 133. D.S. Hooda and D.K. Sharma, Generalized R-Norm information Measures-Journal of Appl. Math, Statistics & informatics (JAMSI), Vol. 4 No.2 , 153-168, 2008.
  134. 134. Dilip Kumar Sharma, “Some Generalized Information Measures: Their characterization and Applications”, Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany, 2010. ISBN: 978-3838386041.
  135. 135. Suman Rajest S, P. Suresh, “An Analysis of Chetan Bhagat’s Revolution -2020: Love, Ambition, Corruption” in International Journal of English Language, Literature in Humanities, Volume: V, Issue IX, September 2017, Page No.: 52-62.
  136. 136. Suman Rajest S, P. Suresh, “Galapagos: Is Human Accomplishment Worthwhile” in Online International Interdisciplinary Research Journal (OIIRJ), Volume: VII, Special Issue II, September 2017, Page No.: 307-314.
  137. 137. Suman Rajest S, P. Suresh, “The white Tiger by Aravind Adiga: Depiction of Fermentation in Society” in International Journal of Information Movement, Volume: II, Special Issue VI, October 2017, Page No.: 189-194.
  138. 138. Suman Rajest S, P. Suresh, “Confrontation on Modernism or Postmodernism Changes after the World War” in New Academia: An International Journal of English Language, Literature and Literary Theory, Volume: VII, Special Issue I, January 2018, Page No.: 50-76.
  139. 139. Suman Rajest S, P. Suresh, “The Post-War Novel as Catch-22: The Chronology and Ex-P.F.C Winter Green” in International Journal of Research Culture Society, Volume: II, Special Issue II, February 2018, Page No.: 64-68.
  140. 140. S. Suman Rajest; Anbarasi, “The Postwar Novel as Postmodern: Billy Pilgrim’s Imagination and the Critical Tendency towards Teleology, Slaughterhouse – Five”, International Journal of Advance Research, Ideas and Innovations in Technology, Volume 3, Issue 4, pp.37-41 (2017).
  141. 141. Suman Rajest S, P. Suresh, “Necessary Heads Which are Used for Writing a Scholarly Journal” in New Man International Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume: V, Issue III, March 2018, Page No.: 5-21.
  142. 142. Suman Rajest S, P. Suresh, “Impact of 21st century’s different heads of learning skills for students and teachers” in International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, Volume: V, Issue IV, April 2018, Page No.: 170-178.
  143. 143. Suman Rajest S, P. Suresh, “21st Century Learners’ Student-Centered Learning Various Stages” in International Conference, Age and Content in Journey of Language by VISTAS (Tamil Department), Volume: I, Issue I, April 2018, Page No.: 474-492. (International Conference Paper)
  144. 144. Suman Rajest S, P. Suresh, “American Postmodern Novelist Thomas Pynchon’s The Crying of Lot 49: Structure and Absurd Realism” in Proceedings of the IOSRD, 73rd International Conference on Future Trends in Engineering and Business, Volume: 73, May 2018, Page No.: 32-41.
  145. 145. Suman Rajest S, P. Suresh, “The “Four Cs” Education For 21st Century’s Learners” in Research Guru Online Journal of Multidisciplinary Subjects, Volume: XII, Issue I, June 2018, Page No.: 888-900.
  146. 146. Jerusha Angelene Christabel G, Suman Rajest S, “A Short Review on Fragmented Narration in Select Works of Sarnath Banerjee”, American Journal of Social and Humanitarian Research, Vol. 3 No. 4, pp. 12-31, (2022).
  147. 147. Rajest, D. S. S., & G, J. A. C. (2022). A Brief on Past and Present a Tug of War in the Select Works of Kurt Vonnegut. Central Asian Journal of Literature, Philosophy And Culture, 3(4), 59-79.
  148. 148. G, J. A. C., & Rajest, D. S. (2022). Fragmented Narration in Corridor’s Thematic, Language and Imagery. Central Asian Journal Of Arts And Design, 3(4), 15-37.
  149. 149. Steffi. R, D.K. Sharma, S. Suman Rajest, R. Regin, A. J. Obaid, and G. Jerusha Angelene Christabel, “Perceptron in Supervised, Semi-Supervised, Unsupervised Learning and Artificial Neural Network”, CAJOTAS, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 176-199, May 2022.
  150. 150. A, V. V. ., T, S. ., S, S. N. ., & Rajest, D. S. S. . (2022). IoT-Based Automated Oxygen Pumping System for Acute Asthma Patients. European Journal of Life Safety and Stability (2660-9630), 19 (7), 8-34.
  151. 151. Suman Rajest S, P. Suresh, “The Problematizing of History Concentrated on The Poetics of Historiographic Metafiction by Postmodernism and How It Influences Postmodern Fiction” in International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics (IJPAM), Volume: 119, Special Issue 16, July 2018, Page No.: 2457-2469.
  152. 152. Suman Rajest S, P. Suresh, “Themes and Techniques from Modernism to Postmodernism: The Dubious Continuance of Gravity’s Rainbow” in International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, Volume: 119, Special Issue 16, July 2018, Page No.: 2373-2384.
  153. 153. Suman Rajest S, P. Suresh, “Absurd Realism and Structure in Thomas Pynchon’s The Crying of Lot 49” in Journal of Advanced Research in Dynamical and Control Systems, Volume: 10, Special Issue 11, August 2018, Page No.: 571-580.
  154. 154. Suman Rajest S, P. Suresh, “The Deducible Teachings Of Historiographic Metafiction Of Modern Theories Of Both Fiction And History” in Eurasian Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Volume: 13, Special Issue 04, July 2018, Page No.: 110-117.
  155. 155. Suman Rajest S, P. Suresh, “The Dialog on Postmodernism Intertextuality, Parody, The Talk of History and The Issue of Reference” in International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering, Volume-7, Issue-5C, February 2019, Page No.: 244-7.
  156. 156. Suman Rajest S, P. Suresh, “An Analysis of Psychological Aspects in Student-Centered Learning Activities and Different Methods” in Journal of International Pharmaceutical Research, Volume: 46, Special Issue 01, March 2019, Page No.: 165-172.
  157. 157. Md. Salamun Rashidin, Sara Javed, Bin Liu, Wang Jian, Suman Rajest S, “Insights: Rivals Collaboration on Belt and Road Initiatives and Indian Recourses” in Journal of Advanced Research in Dynamical and Control Systems, Volume: 11, Special Issue 04, 2019, Page No.: 1509-1522.
  158. 158. Dr. P.S. Venkateswaran, Dr. A. Sabarirajan, S. Suman Rajest And R. Regin (2019) “The Theory of the Postmodernism in Consumerism, Mass Culture and Globalization” in The Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera Volume 50 (4): 97-113
  159. 159. Desfiandi, A., Suman Rajest, S., S. Venkateswaran, P., Palani Kumar, M., & Singh, S. (2019). Company Credibility: A Tool To Trigger Positive CSR Image In The Cause-Brand Alliance Context In Indonesia. Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, 7(6), 320-331.
  160. 160. K.B. Adanov, S. Suman Rajest, Mustagaliyeva Gulnara, Khairzhanova Akhmaral (2019), “A Short View on the Backdrop of American’s Literature”. Journal of Advanced Research in Dynamical and Control Systems, Vol. 11, No. 12, pp. 182-192.
  161. 161. D Datta, S Mishra, SS Rajest, (2020) “Quantification of tolerance limits of engineering system using uncertainty modeling for sustainable energy” International Journal of Intelligent Networks, Vol.1, 2020, pp.1-8,
  162. 162. Leo Willyanto Santoso, Bhopendra Singh, S. Suman Rajest, R. Regin, Karrar Hameed Kadhim (2021), “A Genetic Programming Approach to Binary Classification Problem” EAI Endorsed Transactions on Energy, Vol.8, no. 31, pp. 1-8. DOI: 10.4108/eai.13-7-2018.165523
  163. 163. S. Suman Rajest Dr. Bhopendra Singh, P. Kavitha, R. Regin, Dr.K. Praghash, S. Sujatha, “Optimized Node Clustering based on Received Signal Strength with Particle Ordered-filter Routing Used in VANET” Webology, Vol.17, No.2, pp. 262-277, 2020.
  164. 164. K.K.D. Ramesh, G. Kiran Kumar, K. Swapna, Debabrata Datta, and S. Suman Rajest, “A Review of Medical Image Segmentation Algorithms”, EAI Endorsed Transactions on Pervasive Health and Technology, 2021, doi: 10.4108/eai.12-4-2021.169184
  165. 165. R. Regin, S. Suman Rajest and Bhopendra Singh, “Fault Detection in Wireless Sensor Network Based on Deep Learning Algorithms”, EAI Endorsed Transactions on Scalable Information Systems, 2021,
  166. 166. Worakamol Wisetsri, Krishnabhaskar Mangalasserri, Luigi Pio Leonardo Cavaliere, S. Suman Rajest, Praveen Mittal, M. Kalyan Chakravarthi, Kartikey Koti, Ashish Gupta, R. Regin, “The Impact of Marketing Practices on NGO Performance: The Pestel Model Effect”, Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry, Volume 12, Issue 3, July 2021:2884- 2903.
  167. 167. Roy Setiawan, V. Ramesh Kumar, S. Suman Rajest, M. Kalyan Chakravarthi, Klinge Orlando Villalba-Condori, Cesar Gonzalo Vera-Vasquez,Tamil Selvan Subramaniam, Kartikey Koti, Regin Rajan., The Empirical Results of Conditional Analysis of Principals' Reasons in Bullying Teachers, Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry, Volume 12, Issue 3, July 2021:2737- 2756.
  168. 168. Luigi Pio Leonardo Cavaliere, S. Suman Rajest, Balbir Singh, M Jagadish Kumar, Kartikey Koti,M. Kalyan Chakravarthi, S. Arun, R. Regin, Sonia Singh., Achieving United Nations Goals Throughout the Youth Leadership, Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry, Volume 12, Issue 3, July 2021:2859- 2883.
  169. 169. Tribhuwan Kumar, S. Suman Rajest, Klinge Orlando Villalba-Condori, Dennis Arias-Chavez, K. Rajesh, M. Kalyan Chakravarthi, “An Evaluation on Speech Recognition Technology based on Machine Learning, “Webology, Volume 19, Number 1, January, 2022, pp. 646-663.
  170. 170. Chutimon Narawish, Dilip Kumar Sharma, S. Suman Rajest, R. Regin, “Importance of Cost Efficiency in Critical Aspect of Influences the Decision-Making Process in Banks”, “Turkish Journal of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation; 32(3), pp. 47184-47212, 2021.
  171. 171. Fazle Rabbi , Nasir Abdul Jalil , S. Suman Rajest , R. Regin, “ An Approximation For Monitoring The Efficiency Of Cooperative Across Diverse Network Aspects”, Webology, Volume 17, No 2, 2020, Pages: 1234-1247.
  172. 172. Rao, A. N., Vijayapriya, P., Kowsalya, M., & Rajest, S. S. (2020). Computer Tools for Energy Systems. In International Conference on Communication, Computing and Electronics Systems (pp. 475-484). Springer, Singapore.
  173. 173. Gupta J., Singla M.K., Nijhawan P., Ganguli S., Rajest S.S. (2020) An IoT-Based Controller Realization for PV System Monitoring and Control. In: Haldorai A., Ramu A., Khan S. (eds) Business Intelligence for Enterprise Internet of Things. EAI/Springer Innovations in Communication and Computing. Springer, Cham
  174. 174. Sharma M., Singla M.K., Nijhawan P., Ganguli S., Rajest S.S. (2020) An Application of IoT to Develop Concept of Smart Remote Monitoring System. In: Haldorai A., Ramu A., Khan S. (eds) Business Intelligence for Enterprise Internet of Things. EAI/Springer Innovations in Communication and Computing. Springer, Cham
  175. 175. Ganguli S., Kaur G., Sarkar P., Rajest S.S. (2020) An Algorithmic Approach to System Identification in the Delta Domain Using FAdFPA Algorithm. In: Haldorai A., Ramu A., Khan S. (eds) Business Intelligence for Enterprise Internet of Things. EAI/Springer Innovations in Communication and Computing. Springer, Cham
  176. 176. Singla M.K., Gupta J., Nijhawan P., Ganguli S., Rajest S.S. (2020) Development of an Efficient, Cheap, and Flexible IoT-Based Wind Turbine Emulator. In: Haldorai A., Ramu A., Khan S. (eds) Business Intelligence for Enterprise Internet of Things. EAI/Springer Innovations in Communication and Computing. Springer, Cham
  177. 177. Rajasekaran R., Rasool F., Srivastava S., Masih J., Rajest S.S. (2020) Heat Maps for Human Group Activity in Academic Blocks. In: Haldorai A., Ramu A., Khan S. (eds) Business Intelligence for Enterprise Internet of Things. EAI/Springer Innovations in Communication and Computing. Springer, Cham
  178. 178. S. Suman Rajest, D.K. Sharma, R. Regin and Bhopendra Singh, “Extracting Related Images from E-commerce Utilizing Supervised Learning”, Innovations in Information and Communication Technology Series, pp. 033-045, 28 February, 2021.
  179. 179. Souvik Ganguli, Abhimanyu Kumar, Gagandeep Kaur, Prasanta Sarkar and S. Suman Rajest, “A global optimization technique for modeling and control of permanent magnet synchronous motor drive”, Innovations in Information and Communication Technology Series, pp. 074-081, 28 February, 2021.
  180. 180. Jappreet Kaur, Tejpal Singh Kochhar, Souvik Ganguli and S. Suman Rajest, “Evolution of Management System Certification: An overview”, Innovations in Information and Communication Technology Series, pp. 082-092, 28 February, 2021.
  181. 181. R. Regin, S. Suman Rajest and Bhopendra Singh, “Spatial Data Mining Methods Databases and Statistics Point of Views”, Innovations in Information and Communication Technology Series, pp. 103-109, 28 February, 2021.
  182. 182. D. K. Sharma, B. Singh, E. Herman, R. Regine, S. S. Rajest and V. P. Mishra, "Maximum Information Measure Policies in Reinforcement Learning with Deep Energy-Based Model," 2021 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Knowledge Economy (ICCIKE), 2021, pp. 19-24, doi: 10.1109/ICCIKE51210.2021.9410756.
  183. 183. F. Arslan, B. Singh, D. K. Sharma, R. Regin, R. Steffi and S. Suman Rajest, "Optimization Technique Approach to Resolve Food Sustainability Problems," 2021 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Knowledge Economy (ICCIKE), 2021, pp. 25-30, doi: 10.1109/ICCIKE51210.2021.9410735.
  184. 184. G. A. Ogunmola, B. Singh, D. K. Sharma, R. Regin, S. S. Rajest and N. Singh, "Involvement of Distance Measure in Assessing and Resolving Efficiency Environmental Obstacles," 2021 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Knowledge Economy (ICCIKE), 2021, pp. 13-18, doi: 10.1109/ICCIKE51210.2021.9410765.
  185. 185. A. Raja and S. Singh, "Event Study on Appointment and Removal of Chairman: Case of Tata Group", Amity Business Review, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 1-9, 2018.
  186. 186. Abdulbaqi, A., Younis, M., Younus, Y., Obaid, A. (2022). A hybrid technique for EEG signals evaluation and classification as a step towards to neurological and cerebral disorders diagnosis. International Journal of Nonlinear Analysis and Applications, 13(1), 773-781. doi: 10.22075/ijnaa.2022.5590
  187. 187. Abdulreda, A., Obaid, A. (2022). A landscape view of deepfake techniques and detection methods. International Journal of Nonlinear Analysis and Applications, 13(1), 745-755. doi: 10.22075/ijnaa.2022.5580
  188. 188. Adhikari, S., Hutaihit, M., Chakraborty, M., Mahmood, S., Durakovic, B., Pal, S., Akila, D., Obaid, A. (2021). Analysis of average waiting time and server utilization factor using queueing theory in cloud computing environment. International Journal of Nonlinear Analysis and Applications, 12(Special Issue), 1259-1267. doi: 10.22075/ijnaa.2021.5636
  189. 189. Azmi Shawkat Abdulbaqi, Ahmed J. Obaid & Maysaa Hameed Abdulameer (2021) Smartphone-based ECG signals encryption for transmission and analyzing via IoMTs, Journal of Discrete Mathematical Sciences and Cryptography, DOI: 10.1080/09720529.2021.1958996
  190. 190. D. Hemavathi, V. R. Kumar, R. Regin, S. S. Rajest, K. Phasinam and S. Singh, "Technical Support for Detection and Prediction of Rainfall," 2021 2nd International Conference on Smart Electronics and Communication (ICOSEC), 2021, pp. 1629-1634, doi: 10.1109/ICOSEC51865.2021.9591762.
  191. 191. D. K. Sharma, B. Singh, M. Raja, R. Regin and S. S. Rajest, "An Efficient Python Approach for Simulation of Poisson Distribution," 2021 7th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems (ICACCS), 2021, pp. 2011-2014, doi: 10.1109/ICACCS51430.2021.9441895.
  192. 192. D. K. Sharma, N. A. Jalil, R. Regin, S. S. Rajest, R. K. Tummala and T. N, "Predicting Network Congestion with Machine Learning," 2021 2nd International Conference on Smart Electronics and Communication (ICOSEC), 2021, pp. 1574-1579, doi: 10.1109/ICOSEC51865.2021.9591897.
  193. 193. Ibrahim, K., Obaid, A. (2021). Fraud usage detection in internet users based on log data. International Journal of Nonlinear Analysis and Applications, 12(2), 2179-2188. doi: 10.22075/ijnaa.2021.5367
  194. 194. Jayakumar P., Suman Rajest S., Aravind B.R. (2022) An Empirical Study on the Effectiveness of Online Teaching and Learning Outcomes with Regard to LSRW Skills in COVID-19 Pandemic. In: Hamdan A., Hassanien A.E., Mescon T., Alareeni B. (eds) Technologies, Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Learning Post-COVID-19. Studies in Computational Intelligence, vol 1019. Springer, Cham.
  195. 195. Obaid, A. J., Ibrahim, K. K., Abdulbaqi, A. S., & Nejrs, S. M. (2021). An adaptive approach for internet phishing detection based on log data. Periodicals of Engineering and Natural Sciences, 622-631.
  196. 196. Pandey, D., Wairya, S., Al Mahdawi, R., Najim, S., Khalaf, H., Al Barzinji, S., Obaid, A. (2021). Secret data transmission using advanced steganography and image compression. International Journal of Nonlinear Analysis and Applications, 12(Special Issue), 1243-1257. doi: 10.22075/ijnaa.2021.5635
  197. 197. Rajest, D. S. S., G, J. A. C., & Galiya, D. S. (2022). Modern Spinsters in the Family and Kinship in the 21st Century. Central Asian Journal of Social Sciences and History, 3(8), 37-55. Retrieved from
  198. 198. S. Joghee, A. Dubey and S. Singh, "Investigation of green marketing practices of UAE hypermarkets", International Journal of Enterprise Network Management, vol. 12, no. 4, p. 367, 2021.
  199. 199. S. Kamal, D. Rahman and D. Singh, "Covid-19 Related Factors Associated with Antenatal Care in Rural Bangladesh: A qualitative study", Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management, vol. 17, no. 1, 2022.
  200. 200. S. Singh and S. Das, "Impact of post-merger and acquisition activities on the financial performance of banks: a study of Indian private sector and public sector banks", Revista Espacios, vol. 39, no. 25, pp. 25-40, 2018.
  201. 201. S. Singh, S. Mondal, L. Singh, K. Sahoo and S. Das, "An Empirical Evidence Study of Consumer Perception and Socioeconomic Profiles for Digital Stores in Vietnam", Sustainability, vol. 12, no. 5, p. 1716, 2020.
  202. 202. Shahzad, F., Abid, F., Obaid, A., Kumar Rai, B., Ashraf, M., Abdulbaqi, A. (2021). Forward stepwise logistic regression approach for determinants of hepatitis B & C among Hiv/Aids patients. International Journal of Nonlinear Analysis and Applications, 12(Special Issue), 1367-1396. doi: 10.22075/ijnaa.2022.5717
  203. 203. Sharma, G., Kumar, J., Sharma, S., Singh, G., Singh, J., Sharma, A., . . . Obaid, A. J. (2021). Performance of diesel engine having waste heat recovery system fixed on stainless steel made exhaust gas pipe. Materials Today: Proceedings.
  204. 204. Singh, V. Shukla and S. Singh, "An Empirical Study of Shift from SMS to Chat-App among University Student", International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering, vol. 7, no. 64, pp. 1-6, 2019.
  205. 205. Srivastava Y., Ganguli S., Suman Rajest S., Regin R. (2022) Smart HR Competencies and Their Applications in Industry 4.0. In: Kumar P., Obaid A.J., Cengiz K., Khanna A., Balas V.E. (eds) A Fusion of Artificial Intelligence and Internet of Things for Emerging Cyber Systems. Intelligent Systems Reference Library, vol 210. Springer, Cham.